Patent is thus a dedicated branch/field of Intellectual Property Right (IPR) domain, [which essentially provides legal protection for anything that originates in human mind], which enables to legally protect implementable ideas.
One can claim tangible objects like car, house, computer, mobile phones, etc., as owned/owner when they have a receipt of buying or purchase or any document that says that the object belong to him/her. However, the ideas originating in a human mind/intellect is very difficult to claim or own as anybody else can very easily steal/claim the idea since there is no proof of origin with the owner. Such ideas become critically important if they are implementable to generate or manufacture or achieve tangible results/objects. Thus, protection of such implementable ideas is very essential.
Patent is a legal right given to a person who is a true and a first inventor, of any idea/concept which is implementable in nature (referred to as Invention), by the Government of a particular country or authorized patent office of the particular country for a limited time period (20 years) against the disclosure of his idea/concept which is implementable. The legal right is given to the owner of the patent (inventor) to prohibit other from making, using, selling or importing the patented invention.
Patent can be obtained in the particular country by disclosing the details/information associated with the invention in techno-legal form. The legal right (patent) is given by respective jurisdictions (countries/jurisdictions) in which the inventors apply for patent. More specifically, Patent is territorial right i.e., for example, if a person files a patent application to get patent for his implementable idea in United States and not in Australia, the person would get a patent in United States and not in Australia.
The legal right is required, as the inventor is the originator/true and first inventor of the invention and do not want anybody (other person or any company) to copy or steal his invention without his knowledge.